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从相知到“相杀”,电磁学家法拉第因何与老师分道扬镳?

????19世纪初叶,英国化学家汉弗莱·戴维(Humphry Davy)所主持的一系列公开科学讲座在伦敦大受欢迎,除了给他自己带来了数量庞大的贵族女粉丝外,也为英国皇家学会带来了超高的人气和收入。戴维的讲座 | The Collection of Dr. Bayla Singer不过,由于讲座所在的阿尔比马尔街即将封路改造,1812年的春季讲座将是当时人们可预期的、戴维在这里的最后一次露面。之前已经听过几次戴维讲座的装订工人迈克尔·法拉第(Michael Faraday),有幸通过一个偶然的机会,从他工作的书店的一位老顾客那里获得了这次告别讲座的门票。这绝对是科学史上最具传奇色彩的意外之一,也开启了一段着名的从相识相知到迷失破灭的故事。那是他第一次与法拉第建立联系1791年,法拉第出生于英格兰的一个贫穷铁匠家庭。要是早个八百年,铁匠在英格兰也算个高端职业,可惜法拉第出生的时候,大英帝国已经即将完成第一次工业革命了。青年法拉第肖像 | H.W. Pickersgill这一年,海峡对岸的法国大革命正在用人民战争的汪洋大海推翻欧洲历史上最集权的封建王朝,而启蒙思想和理性主义、电学的神奇和娱乐主义正在轮番占据着欧洲贵族们的闲暇时间。但作为铁匠的孩子,年幼的法拉第并没有接触科学的机会,他小学尚未毕业便成为伦敦众多走街串巷的报童中的一员。因为耳聪目明,善于思考,性格沉稳,一来二往,便被书店的老板相中,成为了书店的一名装订学徒。在那个获取知识的手段稀缺的时代,书籍作为人类进步的阶梯,其全产业链在每一片大陆都塑造着日后的伟大人物。无论是美洲印刷工人的代表本杰明·富兰克林,还是欧洲装订工人的代表迈克尔·法拉第,都是利用工作之便,沉迷于书山之中,用知识改变了自己的命运。在如饥似渴的阅读过程中,法拉第发现了一本名叫《化学对话》的书籍。这是一本面向社会大众的插图版入门科普书,沿袭了伽利略的习惯,以老师和学生间的对话展开,作者是当时伦敦最红的科学明星汉弗莱·戴维的铁杆女粉简·马赛特(Jane Marcet)。通过这本书,法拉第第一次与这位他生命当中极其重要的男人建立了联系。《化学对话》的作者简·马赛特 | Edgar Fahs Smith Collection他成了最好的助手戴维的告别讲座当天,法拉第的座位隐藏在剧院走廊的一个钟表旁边。他的思路随着戴维一起飞翔,他的笔尖随着戴维的讲述而不断划动。在接下来的几个月里,他整理出了那天讲座的详细内容,用精美的手绘插图装饰,并最终利用自己的装订知识完美地把这一切装订成册。在圣诞节前夕,法拉第鼓起勇气将这份装订精美的笔记送到了戴维那里,并表明了自己愿意跟随戴维从事科研工作的决心。很快,戴维回复了法拉第,并对他的笔记大加赞扬。看到法拉第笔记的时刻,戴维也许看见了曾经的自己——那个同样出身贫寒、热爱科学的少年。虽然素未谋面,但戴维默默记下了法拉第的名字。之后,在1813年3月,戴维的一名实验室助理被解雇,他便迅速联系了法拉第。虽然相比于法拉第之前的工作,这份工作薪水有所减少,但只要能获得规范的科学研究方法和实验技能培训,年轻的法拉第并不在意。法拉第的笔记。这是为了某次演讲而做的,不是他送给戴维的那本 | theiet.org法拉第在成为戴维的实验室助理后,便深得戴维的喜爱和器重。当年10月,戴维力排众议带着爱徒法拉第前往欧洲大陆考察,拜会安培、伏特、奥斯特这些欧洲大陆上着名的科学家。虽然因为政策等原因,法拉第这次考察的官方身份只是戴维夫妇的仆人,但能够单独和自己的老师一起考察学习,去见识欧洲电学研究最顶尖的一批科学家,法拉第也十分感激。从欧洲大陆回来之后,法拉第凭借自己的勤奋与天赋,从实验室里的杂活干起,无论是清洁卫生还是烧制仪器,无论是记录结果还是设计方案,他都认真完成。法拉第作为戴维手下最细心、最好用、最廉价、最任劳任怨的助手,完美地完成了戴维交给他的所有任务,并在完成了琐碎的工作之后,在皇家学会的地下室里进行了一些自己感兴趣的实验。他于1816年在戴维的指导下发表了自己的第一篇论文,到了1821年,已经发表了超过30篇论文。他第一次尝到了备受瞩目的成就感1820年,相信康德那套万事万物皆有联系观点的丹麦物理学家汉斯·奥斯特发现了电流的磁效应,被之前的科学宣判离婚的电学和磁学又重新联系在了一起,这个领域的热度被迅速引燃。汉斯·奥斯特 | Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg英国《哲学年鉴》的主编想要请戴维撰写一系列文章,评述奥斯特的发现以及电磁学实验的发展情况;戴维直接把这一工作交给了羽翼渐丰的爱徒法拉第。为了完成这篇文章,法拉第阅读了他能找到的所有资料,而这些资料就像一个矛盾信息的杂货铺。他发现奥斯特关于电流磁效应原理的康德主义解释让人完全摸不着头脑,于是转而在安培的数学描述中寻找答案。但由于他从未接受过高等数学方面的训练,安培的公式对于他而言,更是一本布满象形文字的天书。他只能用实验的方法去自己寻找答案了,而规范化的实验方法正是戴维教给他的。法拉第后来的实验室 | Harriet Jane Moore法拉第重复了期刊文章中描述过的所有实验,包括奥斯特着名的通电导线使指南针偏转的实验。最后,他将自己的发现与思考写入了约稿的一系列文章中,并谦卑地没有签署自己的真名,只是署下了“M”这个笔名。这是世界上第一组可以被大众所理解的电磁学综述,深入浅出,受到了读者们的热烈欢迎。公众恳请文章作者向大家披露自己的真名,备受鼓舞的法拉第便公开了自己的名字,也第一次尝到了被人瞩目的成就感。他可能要控制不住这个徒弟了随着法拉第崭露头角,戴维对他的感情也复杂了起来。戴维和法拉第一样,也来自于社会底层,是一位木匠的儿子。戴维在父亲亡故之后,便在一家药店打工补贴家用,并在和药店里的瓶瓶罐罐打交道时爱上了化学。但是相比走上了康德哲学道路的奥斯特,戴维并不在意什么主义和信仰,他所在意的只是实验和实用。青年戴维肖像 | Wikimedia Commons现代化学的框架是在戴维之前刚刚被拉瓦锡建立起来的。但可惜的是,稍后在法国大革命中,拉瓦锡这颗法国一百年才能长出一颗的脑袋咔嚓之间就被革命事业收割了。之后,如今化学电池的原型伏打电池被意大利科学家伏特发明,很快,这个电池既成为了奥斯特手中的武器,也成为了戴维手中的武器。有了现代化学的框架作为理论指导、伏打电池作为实验工具,年轻的戴维很快就走上了电解狂魔的道路,不到三十岁就发现了钾、纳、镁、钙、锶、钡、硅、硼、氯等元素,成为人类历史上独自发现元素最多的科学家。加之戴维长相英俊,所以在那个年代他便是英国最闪耀的科学明星。之后他顺利获得了爵士头衔,并迎娶了富有美丽但刻薄的贵族寡妇,大步迈入了大英帝国的精英阶层。镁是戴维发现的 | Warut Roonguthai / Wikimedia Commons本质上来说,戴维可能算是一个天资聪慧、勤奋努力、白手起家并最终实现阶级跨越的凤凰男,凤凰的羽毛虽然华美绮丽,但却敏感脆弱。已经小有名气的法拉第开始让戴维的心态有了那么一丝失衡,更让他开始觉得自己可能快要控制不住这个徒弟了。内心的担忧或许要成为现实在公众面前获得知名度后,法拉第开始正式转向电磁学的研究。他仔细地分析了电流的磁效应等现象,认为既然电能够产生磁,反过来,磁也应该能产生电。于是在1821年的9月3日,法拉第设计并完成了他生命中第二着名的实验。相比于他最着名的电磁感应与发电机的实验,这是一个相对简单的实验。法拉第找来了实验室里普通的杯子、磁铁、导线、水银(低摩擦系数良导体,当时的化学实验室常备物品,也是曾经的炼金术师最爱)等物品。首先将磁铁的北极固定在杯子底部,然后在杯子内充满水银作为导体,之后从绝缘支架上将可以自由旋转的电线垂入水银杯中,然后加入伏打电池组成通路,一头连接绝缘支架上的电线,另一头通过另一根电线连接水银杯。改进后的电磁旋转装置,这里把最初的两套装置变成了一套 | Wikimedia Commons法拉第发现:通电之后,在磁铁固定的情况下,导线会绕磁铁旋转;相反,将导线固定,磁铁松开,磁铁就会绕导线旋转。这就是历史上记载的人类第一台电动机。法拉第做出这台电动机的时候,戴维和当时英国的电磁学权威威廉·沃拉斯顿都不在伦敦。或许是为了防止法国那边恃才傲物的安培捷足先登,或许是因为年轻的法拉第刚刚尝过了受人敬仰的滋味,也或许是新婚燕尔的法拉第着急着为他的新娘萨拉补上拖欠了三个月的蜜月旅行——总之,他当时直接就把这篇论文独自发表了出来。而在戴维看来,这个举动正式宣布他深藏在内心的担忧变成了现实。他唯一一次想要放弃科研事业如今,大量材料将戴维此刻的情感描述为嫉妒法拉第的才华,但嫉妒是一种与竞争相伴的情感。实际上,当时的情况是,戴维是皇家学会会长,法拉第是他的学生,他们之间存在地位上的巨大差异。戴维后来的种种行为,更有可能是出于容不得自己的权威受到挑战的傲慢情感,一种失去对亲密关系控制能力的歇斯底里。法拉第居然越过自己这个老板和领域权威,单独署名,私自抢发重要论文,这是当时情绪已经失控的戴维爵士所担忧和不能接受的。因为戴维的引导和授意,皇家学会的会员们议论纷纷,公开指责法拉第剽窃了沃拉斯顿的学术成果。当法拉第带着新婚妻子萨拉从海滨度蜜月归来,迎接他的,不是他原以为的备受敬仰,而是千夫所指。这是法拉第一生当中唯一一次想要放弃科研事业,委屈的他曾向妻子萨拉表示,自己实在是心灰意冷,狼狈到了极点。但是萨拉作为法拉第每晚实验的见证者与陪伴者,在这个时候坚定地鼓励和支持了法拉第坚持下去。法拉第夫妇晚年合照,他们一生相濡以沫 | Wikimedia Commons两个月后,振作起来的法拉第发表了通电导线在地球磁场影响下的转动实验,并向沃拉斯顿展现了自己电动机实验的完整过程,沃拉斯顿消除了误会,并当场祝贺了法拉第的成功。但情况依然没有好转。戴维的权威在逐渐崩塌,此时局促不安的他更不能原谅法拉第的行为了。到了1823年,法拉第开始逐步获得学术圈内广泛的认同,而戴维至少在这件事情上名誉扫地、尊严受挫。这一年夏天,在沃拉斯顿带头签名,皇家学会29名会员联名提议增选法拉第为学会会员时,皇家学会会长戴维勃然大怒,他靠着自己的权力将法拉第的入会投票硬拖了半年。1824年的1月8日,法拉第在仅有戴维一张反对票的情况下,成功当选了皇家学会会员。1857年,皇家学会打算授予法拉第会长职务,但被拒绝了。实际上,法拉第两次拒绝成为会长 | Edward Armitage之后,法拉第和老师的心结再也没有解开。或是出于对老师的敬重和感恩,或是出于更复杂的情感,法拉第主动离开了自己热爱的电磁学领域,接受了戴维指派给他的科研任务,服务于经度测量。而戴维则带着复杂的情绪,很快走向了人生的尽头。法拉第再次回到电磁学领域、真正做出他名垂青史的工作,还是在他的老师戴维去世了以后。65岁的法拉第在皇家研究院进行演讲,此时的他已成为英国十九世纪拥有最广泛社会声誉的科学家 | Alexander Blaikley戴维临终前,朋友去医院看望他。作为历史上独自发现元素最多的男人,朋友问他觉得自己最伟大的发现是哪一种元素,戴维却毫不犹豫地说道:我这辈子最伟大的发现就是发现了法拉第。说出这句话的时候他并不知道,在三十多年之后,爱徒法拉第在弥留之际,依然颤抖着指着自己的画像说:这真的是一个伟大的人。作者:毛毛象编辑:odette参考文献:Alanna Mitchell, The Spinning Magnet. New York: Dutton, 2018.Leslie Pearce Williams. Michael Faraday: A Biography. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965.[英]斯蒂芬·F.梅森. 自然科学史. 上海:上海译文出版社,1977.[美]亨利·M.莱斯特. 化学的历史背景. 北京:商务印书馆,1982.[美]约瑟夫·阿盖西. 法拉第传. 北京:商务印书馆,2002.一个AIBE了……

19 shi ji chu ye, ying guo hua xue jia han fu lai dai wei Humphry Davy suo zhu chi de yi xi lie gong kai ke xue jiang zuo zai lun dun da shou huan ying, chu le gei ta zi ji dai lai le shu liang pang da de gui zu nv fen si wai, ye wei ying guo huang jia xue hui dai lai le chao gao de ren qi he shou ru. dai wei de jiang zuo The Collection of Dr. Bayla Singer bu guo, you yu jiang zuo suo zai de a er bi ma er jie ji jiang feng lu gai zao, 1812 nian de chun ji jiang zuo jiang shi dang shi ren men ke yu qi de dai wei zai zhe li de zui hou yi ci lou mian. zhi qian yi jing ting guo ji ci dai wei jiang zuo de zhuang ding gong ren mai ke er fa la di Michael Faraday, you xing tong guo yi ge ou ran de ji hui, cong ta gong zuo de shu dian de yi wei lao gu ke na li huo de le zhe ci gao bie jiang zuo de men piao. zhe jue dui shi ke xue shi shang zui ju chuan qi se cai de yi wai zhi yi, ye kai qi le yi duan zhu ming de cong xiang shi xiang zhi dao mi shi po mie de gu shi. na shi ta di yi ci yu fa la di jian li lian xi 1791 nian, fa la di chu sheng yu ying ge lan de yi ge pin qiong tie jiang jia ting. yao shi zao ge ba bai nian, tie jiang zai ying ge lan ye suan ge gao duan zhi ye, ke xi fa la di chu sheng de shi hou, da ying di guo yi jing ji jiang wan cheng di yi ci gong ye ge ming le. qing nian fa la di xiao xiang H. W. Pickersgill zhe yi nian, hai xia dui an de fa guo da ge ming zheng zai yong ren min zhan zheng de wang yang da hai tui fan ou zhou li shi shang zui ji quan de feng jian wang chao, er qi meng si xiang he li xing zhu yi dian xue de shen qi he yu le zhu yi zheng zai lun fan zhan ju zhe ou zhou gui zu men de xian xia shi jian. dan zuo wei tie jiang de hai zi, nian you de fa la di bing mei you jie chu ke xue de ji hui, ta xiao xue shang wei bi ye bian cheng wei lun dun zhong duo zou jie chuan xiang de bao tong zhong de yi yuan. yin wei er cong mu ming, shan yu sai kao, xing ge chen wen, yi lai er wang, bian bei shu dian de lao ban xiang zhong, cheng wei le shu dian de yi ming zhuang ding xue tu. zai na ge huo qu zhi shi de shou duan xi que de shi dai, shu ji zuo wei ren lei jin bu de jie ti, qi quan chan ye lian zai mei yi pian da lu dou su zao zhe ri hou de wei da ren wu. wu lun shi mei zhou yin shua gong ren de dai biao ben jie ming fu lan ke lin, hai shi ou zhou zhuang ding gong ren de dai biao mai ke er fa la di, dou shi li yong gong zuo zhi bian, chen mi yu shu shan zhi zhong, yong zhi shi gai bian le zi ji de ming yun. zai ru ji si ke de yue du guo cheng zhong, fa la di fa xian le yi ben ming jiao hua xue dui hua de shu ji. zhe shi yi ben mian xiang she hui da zhong de cha tu ban ru men ke pu shu, yan xi le jia li lue de xi guan, yi lao shi he xue sheng jian de dui hua zhan kai, zuo zhe shi dang shi lun dun zui hong de ke xue ming xing han fu lai dai wei de tie gan nv fen jian ma sai te Jane Marcet. tong guo zhe ben shu, fa la di di yi ci yu zhe wei ta sheng ming dang zhong ji qi zhong yao de nan ren jian li le lian xi. hua xue dui hua de zuo zhe jian ma sai te Edgar Fahs Smith Collection ta cheng le zui hao de zhu shou dai wei de gao bie jiang zuo dang tian, fa la di de zuo wei yin cang zai ju yuan zou lang de yi ge zhong biao pang bian. ta de si lu sui zhe dai wei yi qi fei xiang, ta de bi jian sui zhe dai wei de jiang shu er bu duan hua dong. zai jie xia lai de ji ge yue li, ta zheng li chu le na tian jiang zuo de xiang xi nei rong, yong jing mei di shou hui cha tu zhuang shi, bing zui zhong li yong zi ji de zhuang ding zhi shi wan mei di ba zhe yi qie zhuang ding cheng ce. zai sheng dan jie qian xi, fa la di gu qi yong qi jiang zhe fen zhuang ding jing mei di bi ji song dao le dai wei na li, bing biao ming liao zi ji yuan yi gen sui dai wei cong shi ke yan gong zuo de jue xin. hen kuai, dai wei hui fu le fa la di, bing dui ta de bi ji da jia zan yang. kan dao fa la di bi ji de shi ke, dai wei ye xu kan jian le ceng jing de zi ji na ge tong yang chu shen pin han re ai ke xue de shao nian. sui ran su wei mou mian, dan dai wei mo mo ji xia le fa la di de ming zi. zhi hou, zai 1813 nian 3 yue, dai wei de yi ming shi yan shi zhu li bei jie gu, ta bian xun su lian xi le fa la di. sui ran xiang bi yu fa la di zhi qian de gong zuo, zhe fen gong zuo xin shui you suo jian shao, dan zhi yao neng huo de gui fan de ke xue yan jiu fang fa he shi yan ji neng pei xun, nian qing de fa la di bing bu zai yi. fa la di de bi ji. zhe shi wei le mou ci yan jiang er zuo de, bu shi ta song gei dai wei de na ben theiet. org fa la di zai cheng wei dai wei de shi yan shi zhu li hou, bian shen de dai wei de xi ai he qi zhong. dang nian 10 yue, dai wei li pai zhong yi dai zhe ai tu fa la di qian wang ou zhou da lu kao cha, bai hui an pei fu te ao si te zhei xie ou zhou da lu shang zhu ming de ke xue jia. sui ran yin wei zheng ce deng yuan yin, fa la di zhe ci kao cha de guan fang shen fen zhi shi dai wei fu fu de pu ren, dan neng gou dan du he zi ji de lao shi yi qi kao cha xue xi, qu jian shi ou zhou dian xue yan jiu zui ding jian de yi pi ke xue jia, fa la di ye shi fen gan ji. cong ou zhou da lu hui lai zhi hou, fa la di ping jie zi ji de qin fen yu tian fu, cong shi yan shi li de za huo gan qi, wu lun shi qing jie wei sheng huan shi shao zhi yi qi, wu lun shi ji lu jie guo hai shi she ji fang an, ta dou ren zhen wan cheng. fa la di zuo wei dai wei shou xia zui xi xin zui hao yong zui lian jia zui ren lao ren yuan de zhu shou, wan mei di wan cheng le dai wei jiao gei ta de suo you ren wu, bing zai wan cheng le suo sui de gong zuo zhi hou, zai huang jia xue hui de di xia shi li jin xing le yi xie zi ji gan xing qu de shi yan. ta yu 1816 nian zai dai wei de zhi dao xia fa biao le zi ji de di yi pian lun wen, dao le 1821 nian, yi jing fa biao le chao guo 30 pian lun wen. ta di yi ci chang dao le bei shou zhu mu di cheng jiu gan 1820 nian, xiang xin kang de na tao wan shi wan wu jie you lian xi guan dian de dan mai wu li xue jia han si ao si te fa xian le dian liu de ci xiao ying, bei zhi qian de ke xue xuan pan li hun de dian xue he ci xue you chong xin lian xi zai le yi qi, zhe ge ling yu de re du bei xun su yin ran. han si ao si te Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg ying guo zhe xue nian jian de zhu bian xiang yao qing dai wei zhuan xie yi xi lie wen zhang, ping shu ao si te de fa xian yi ji dian ci xue shi yan de fa zhan qing kuang dai wei zhi jie ba zhe yi gong zuo jiao gei le yu yi jian feng de ai tu fa la di. wei le wan cheng zhe pian wen zhang, fa la di yue du le ta neng zhao dao de suo you zi liao, er zhei xie zi liao jiu xiang yi ge mao dun xin xi de za huo pu. ta fa xian ao si te guan yu dian liu ci xiao ying yuan li de kang de zhu yi jie shi rang ren wan quan mo bu zhao tou nao, yu shi zhuan er zai an pei de shu xue miao shu zhong xun zhao da an. dan you yu ta cong wei jie shou guo gao deng shu xue fang mian di xun lian, an pei de gong shi dui yu ta er yan, geng shi yi ben bu man xiang xing wen zi de tian shu. ta zhi neng yong shi yan de fang fa qu zi ji xun zhao da an le, er gui fan hua de shi yan fang fa zheng shi dai wei jiao gei ta de. fa la di hou lai de shi yan shi Harriet Jane Moore fa la di chong fu le qi kan wen zhang zhong miao shu guo de suo you shi yan, bao kuo ao si te zhu ming de tong dian dao xian shi zhi nan zhen pian zhuan de shi yan. zui hou, ta jiang zi ji de fa xian yu si kao xie ru le yue gao de yi xi lie wen zhang zhong, bing qian bei di mei you qian shu zi ji di zhen ming, zhi shi shu xia le" M" zhe ge bi ming. zhe shi shi jie shang di yi zu ke yi bei da zhong suo li jie de dian ci xue zong shu, shen ru qian chu, shou dao le du zhe men de re lie huan ying. gong zhong ken qing wen zhang zuo zhe xiang da jia pi lu zi ji di zhen ming, bei shou gu wu de fa la di bian gong kai le zi ji de ming zi, ye di yi ci chang dao le bei ren zhu mu di cheng jiu gan. ta ke neng yao kong zhi bu zhu zhe ge tu di le sui zhao fa la di zhan lu tou jiao, dai wei dui ta de gan qing ye fu za le qi lai. dai wei he fa la di yi yang, ye lai zi yu she hui di ceng, shi yi wei mu jiang de er zi. dai wei zai fu qin wang gu zhi hou, bian zai yi jia yao dian da gong bu tie jia yong, bing zai huo yao dian li de ping ping guan guan da jiao dao shi ai shang le hua xue. dan shi xiang bi zou shang le kang de zhe xue dao lu de ao si te, dai wei bing bu zai yi shen me zhu yi he xin yang, ta suo zai yi de zhi shi shi yan he shi yong. qing nian dai wei xiao xiang Wikimedia Commons xian dai hua xue de kuang jia shi zai dai wei zhi qian gang gang bei la wa xi jian li qi lai de. dan ke xi de shi, shao hou zai fa guo da ge ming zhong, la wa xi zhe ke fa guo yi bai nian cai neng zhang chu yi ke de nao dai ka cha zhi jian jiu bei ge ming shi ye shou ge le. zhi hou, ru jin hua xue dian chi de yuan xing fu da dian chi bei yi da li ke xue jia fu te fa ming, hen kuai, zhe ge dian chi ji cheng wei le ao si te shou zhong de wu qi, ye cheng wei le dai wei shou zhong de wu qi. you le xian dai hua xue de kuang jia zuo wei li lun zhi dao fu da dian chi zuo wei shi yan gong ju, nian qing de dai wei hen kuai jiu zou shang le dian jie kuang mo de dao lu, bu dao san shi sui jiu fa xian le jia na mei gai si bei gui peng lv deng yuan su, cheng wei ren lei li shi shang du zi fa xian yuan su zui duo de ke xue jia. jia zhi dai wei zhang xiang ying jun, suo yi zai na ge nian dai ta bian shi ying guo zui shan yao de ke xue ming xing. zhi hou ta shun li huo de le jue shi tou xian, bing ying qu le fu you mei li dan ke bo de gui zu gua fu, da bu mai ru le da ying di guo de jing ying jie ceng. mei shi dai wei fa xian de Warut Roonguthai Wikimedia Commons ben zhi shang lai shuo, dai wei ke neng suan shi yi ge tian zi cong hui qin fen nu li bai shou qi jia bing zui zhong shi xian jie ji kua yue de feng huang nan, feng huang de yu mao sui ran hua mei qi li, dan que min gan cui ruo. yi jing xiao you ming qi de fa la di kai shi rang dai wei de xin tai you le na me yi si shi heng, geng rang ta kai shi jue de zi ji ke neng kuai yao kong zhi bu zhu zhe ge tu di le. nei xin de dan you huo xu yao cheng wei xian shi zai gong zhong mian qian huo de zhi ming du hou, fa la di kai shi zheng shi zhuan xiang dian ci xue de yan jiu. ta zi xi di fen xi le dian liu de ci xiao ying deng xian xiang, ren wei ji ran dian neng gou chan sheng ci, fan guo lai, ci ye ying gai neng chan sheng dian. yu shi zai 1821 nian de 9 yue 3 ri, fa la di she ji bing wan cheng le ta sheng ming zhong di er zhu ming de shi yan. xiang bi yu ta zui zhu ming de dian ci gan ying yu fa dian ji de shi yan, zhe shi yi ge xiang dui jian dan de shi yan. fa la di zhao lai le shi yan shi li pu tong de bei zi ci tie dao xian shui yin di mo ca xi shu liang dao ti, dang shi de hua xue shi yan shi chang bei wu pin, ye shi ceng jing de lian jin shu shi zui ai deng wu pin. shou xian jiang ci tie de bei ji gu ding zai bei zi di bu, ran hou zai bei zi nei chong man shui yin zuo wei dao ti, zhi hou cong jue yuan zhi jia shang jiang ke yi zi you xuan zhuan de dian xian chui ru shui yin bei zhong, ran hou jia ru fu da dian chi zu cheng tong lu, yi tou lian jie jue yuan zhi jia shang de dian xian, ling yi tou tong guo ling yi gen dian xian lian jie shui yin bei. gai jin hou de dian ci xuan zhuan zhuang zhi, zhe li ba zui chu de liang tao zhuang zhi bian cheng le yi tao Wikimedia Commons fa la di fa xian: tong dian zhi hou, zai ci tie gu ding de qing kuang xia, dao xian hui rao ci tie xuan zhuan xiang fan, jiang dao xian gu ding, ci tie song kai, ci tie jiu hui rao dao xian xuan zhuan. zhe jiu shi li shi shang ji zai de ren lei di yi tai dian dong ji. fa la di zuo chu zhe tai dian dong ji de shi hou, dai wei he dang shi ying guo de dian ci xue quan wei wei lian wo la si dun dou bu zai lun dun. huo xu shi wei le fang zhi fa guo na bian shi cai ao wu de an pei jie zu xian deng, huo xu shi yin wei nian qing de fa la di gang gang chang guo le shou ren jing yang de zi wei, ye huo xu shi xin hun yan er de fa la di zhao ji zhe wei ta de xin niang sa la bu shang tuo qian le san ge yue de mi yue lv xing zong zhi, ta dang shi zhi jie jiu ba zhe pian lun wen du zi fa biao le chu lai. er zai dai wei kan lai, zhe ge ju dong zheng shi xuan bu ta shen cang zai nei xin de dan you bian cheng le xian shi. ta wei yi yi ci xiang yao fang qi ke yan shi ye ru jin, da liang cai liao jiang dai wei ci ke de qing gan miao shu wei ji du fa la di de cai hua, dan ji du shi yi zhong yu jing zheng xiang ban de qing gan. shi ji shang, dang shi de qing kuang shi, dai wei shi huang jia xue hui hui chang, fa la di shi ta de xue sheng, ta men zhi jian cun zai di wei shang de ju da cha yi. dai wei hou lai de zhong zhong xing wei, geng you ke neng shi chu yu rong bu de zi ji de quan wei shou dao tiao zhan de ao man qing gan, yi zhong shi qu dui qin mi guan xi kong zhi neng li de xie si di li. fa la di ju ran yue guo zi ji zhe ge lao ban he ling yu quan wei, dan du shu ming, si zi qiang fa zhong yao lun wen, zhe shi dang shi qing xu yi jing shi kong de dai wei jue shi suo dan you he bu neng jie shou de. yin wei dai wei de yin dao he shou yi, huang jia xue hui de hui yuan men yi lun fen fen, gong kai zhi ze fa la di piao qie le wo la si dun de xue shu cheng guo. dang fa la di dai zhe xin hun qi zi sa la cong hai bin du mi yue gui lai, ying jie ta de, bu shi ta yuan yi wei de bei shou jing yang, er shi qian fu suo zhi. zhe shi fa la di yi sheng dang zhong wei yi yi ci xiang yao fang qi ke yan shi ye, wei qu de ta ceng xiang qi zi sa la biao shi, zi ji shi zai shi xin hui yi leng, lang bei dao le ji dian. dan shi sa la zuo wei fa la di mei wan shi yan de jian zheng zhe yu pei ban zhe, zai zhe ge shi hou jian ding di gu li he zhi chi le fa la di jian chi xia qu. fa la di fu fu wan nian he zhao, ta men yi sheng xiang ru yi mo Wikimedia Commons liang ge yue hou, zhen zuo qi lai de fa la di fa biao le tong dian dao xian zai di qiu ci chang ying xiang xia de zhuan dong shi yan, bing xiang wo la si dun zhan xian le zi ji dian dong ji shi yan de wan zheng guo cheng, wo la si dun xiao chu le wu hui, bing dang chang zhu he le fa la di de cheng gong. dan qing kuang yi ran mei you hao zhuan. dai wei de quan wei zai zhu jian beng ta, ci shi ju cu bu an de ta geng bu neng yuan liang fa la di de xing wei le. dao le 1823 nian, fa la di kai shi zhu bu huo de xue shu quan nei guang fan de ren tong, er dai wei zhi shao zai zhe jian shi qing shang ming yu sao di zun yan shou cuo. zhe yi nian xia tian, zai wo la si dun dai tou qian ming, huang jia xue hui 29 ming hui yuan lian ming ti yi zeng xuan fa la di wei xue hui hui yuan shi, huang jia xue hui hui chang dai wei bo ran da nu, ta kao zhe zi ji de quan li jiang fa la di de ru hui tou piao ying tuo le ban nian. 1824 nian de 1 yue 8 ri, fa la di zai jin you dai wei yi zhang fan dui piao de qing kuang xia, cheng gong dang xuan le huang jia xue hui hui yuan. 1857 nian, huang jia xue hui da suan shou yu fa la di hui chang zhi wu, dan bei ju jue le. shi ji shang, fa la di liang ci ju jue cheng wei hui chang Edward Armitage zhi hou, fa la di he lao shi de xin jie zai ye mei you jie kai. huo shi chu yu dui lao shi de jing zhong he gan en, huo shi chu yu geng fu za de qing gan, fa la di zhu dong li kai le zi ji re ai de dian ci xue ling yu, jie shou le dai wei zhi pai gei ta de ke yan ren wu, fu wu yu jing du ce liang. er dai wei ze dai zhe fu za de qing xu, hen kuai zou xiang le ren sheng de jin tou. fa la di zai ci hui dao dian ci xue ling yu zhen zheng zuo chu ta ming chui qing shi de gong zuo, hai shi zai ta de lao shi dai wei qu shi le yi hou. 65 sui de fa la di zai huang jia yan jiu yuan jin xing yan jiang, ci shi de ta yi cheng wei ying guo shi jiu shi ji yong you zui guang fan she hui sheng yu de ke xue jia Alexander Blaikley dai wei lin zhong qian, peng you qu yi yuan kan wang ta. zuo wei li shi shang du zi fa xian yuan su zui duo de nan ren, peng you wen ta jue de zi ji zui wei da de fa xian shi na yi zhong yuan su, dai wei que hao bu you yu di shuo dao: wo zhe bei zi zui wei da de fa xian jiu shi fa xian le fa la di. shuo chu zhe ju hua de shi hou ta bing bu zhi dao, zai san shi duo nian zhi hou, ai tu fa la di zai mi liu zhi ji, yi ran chan dou zhe zhi zhe zi ji de hua xiang shuo: zhe zhen de shi yi ge wei da de ren. zuo zhe: mao mao xiang bian ji: odette can kao wen xian: Alanna Mitchell, The Spinning Magnet. New York: Dutton, 2018. Leslie Pearce Williams. Michael Faraday: A Biography. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965. ying si di fen F. mei sen. zi ran ke xue shi. shang hai: shang hai yi wen chu ban she, 1977. mei heng li M. lai si te. hua xue de li shi bei jing. bei jing: shang wu yin shu guan, 1982. mei yue se fu a gai xi. fa la di chuan. bei jing: shang wu yin shu guan, 2002. yi ge AIBE le

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